Glossary of terms you will come across during your Phase 2 training.
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Pascal is the basic SI unit of pressure. It is named after the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist, Blaise Pascal.

The Pascal is the basic unit of pressure:
1 Newton per square metre, or 1N/m2.

This unit is very small and is of little practical use in automotive engineering, so we use kiloPascals instead.
1,000 Pascals = 1 kiloPascal.

100 kPa = 1 bar. (100kN/m2)

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A bar is a measure of pressure.

1 bar = 100 kPa, or

1 bar = 100,000 Pascals.

The conversion factor to the Imperial way of measuring pressure is 14.5

In other words to convert bar to psi (pounds per square inch), multiply by 14.5.

Example: Convert 2 bar to psi.

Although bar and atmospheres (atm) are very similar ways to measure pressure, they are not the same:

1 bar = 100 kN/m2 = 14.5 psi

1 atm = 101.3 kN/m2 = 14.7 psi

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Pounds per square inch: This is the old imperial way of measuring pressure. Pressure is defined as force per unit area. In the imperial system, the force is pounds, and the area is the square inch.

14.5 psi = 1 bar.

Atmospheric pressure is approximately equal to 14.7 psi (101.3 kN/m2)

 Keyword(s): pounds per square inch
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The study of amplifying forces and transmitting the resulting pressure by the use of liquids. The word comes from:

Hydro meaning water and aulos meaning pipes.

Hydraulics is divided into two basic categories:

1. Hydrostatics: The study of liquids and fluids at rest-high pressure, low flow.
2. Hydrodynamics: The study of liquids and fluids in motion-low pressure, large flow.

Liquids are used because they are practically incompressible. This means that almost no energy is used in compression, making the system extremely efficient.  Water is not used in plant machinery applications because it corrodes, boils, freezes and is very viscous, thus making it hard to seal in a system. Instead, we make use of hydraulic oil, or in some braking systems, vegetable based brake fluids.

 Keyword(s): HydrostaticsHydrodynamics
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The study of amplifying and transmitting forces by the use of air.
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A gear ratio where it takes less than one full turn of the input shaft to produce one full turn of the output shaft.

For example, a ratio of 0.9:1 is common in the 5th speed ratio of cars. This is an overdrive.

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In the context of diesel engines, the delay period is the time between when atomised fuel is injected into the combustion chamber and the time when this fuel begins to burn. During this time, the fuel absorbs heat from the compressed air in the cylinder. No burning, and therefore no temperature or significant rise in pressure occurs during this period. The shorter this period of time, the less diesel knock there is in the engine.

This period is sometimes referred to as the lag stage.

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In the context of diesel engines, the lag stage is the time between when atomised fuel is injected into the combustion chamber and the time when this fuel begins to burn. During this time, the fuel absorbs heat from the compressed air in the cylinder. No burning, and therefore no temperature or significant rise in pressure occurs during this period. The shorter this period of time, the less diesel knock there is in the engine.

This period is more commonly referred to as delay period.

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Air is a gas that is the main component of the earth's atmosphere. It is a mixture of many different gasses such as nitrogen (78%), oxygen (20%) and carbon dioxide (1%). There are much smaller traces of other gasses such as freon, neon, argon, helium, carbon monoxide and helium.
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Nitric Oxide and Nitrogen Di-Oxide are designated as the NOx gasses.

Nitrogen oxide (NO) is colourless and odourless.

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