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Glossary of terms you will come across during your Phase 2 training.



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In the context of fuel, specifically petrol, lead (or more precisely, tetraethyl lead) used to be added to fuel, where it acted as an anti-knock inhibitor. It was very good in this role, but the problem was that 75% of it was passed out the exhaust and into the environment.
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Additive formerly used in petrol in order to inhibit the tendency of an air-fuel mixture to detonate rather than burn evenly in the combustion chamber.
After combustion, most of this lead was passed to the atmosphere via the exhaust gasses, where it caused pollution. Governments imposed high taxation on this type of fuel in order to discourage its use.
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The number of turns needed at the input shaft in order to produce one full turn of the output shaft. For example, a ratio of 4:1 means that four full turns are required of the input shaft in order to prodcue one full turn of the output shaft. A ratio of 0.9:1 is called an overdrive. This means that less than one full turn of the input produces one full turn of the output shaft. This is the sort of ratio used in 5th gear in cars.
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Backlash, no matter how big or small the gears are!

Backlash (or lash) is the amount of free play left between gears in mesh. The purpose of this lash is to allow room for gears to expand when they are hot, and to leave clearance between gear teeth for lubricating oil.

Remember, it makes no difference how big or small the gears are, the science, theories and adjustments on them are still the same:

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In the context of bearing adjustment, the slackness or free play left when adjusting bearings. For example, for some types of wheel bearing arrangements endfloat is left in the bearings, because when the brakes are operated, some heat will flow into the wheel bearings. If there was no endfloat, the bearings would expand when heated and bind up.

Endfloat also refers to any axial movement in a component. For example, crankshafts in engines have endfloat. This float is borne by thrust washers.

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Two different contexts here, one in Hydraulics, and the other in Transmissions.

Transmissions:

Set of gears used in the transmission system which allows wheels on an axle to turn at different speeds but always equal torque. This becomes necessary when a vehicle is cornering. The inner wheel on the corner must cover a shorter path than the outer wheel.

Why we need a differential.

 The differential allows this to happen. One problem with this arrangement is when one of the driving wheels looses traction on soft or muddy ground. The wheel on solid ground receives the same amount of torque needed to drive the wheel on muddy ground, which is very little. The result is that the wheel with no traction spins and the other wheel does not drive, and the vehicle does not move. This situation can be avoided by use of a differential lock, if there is one fitted to the vehicle. Note: The term differential is often abbreviated to "diff" and is used (incorrectly) to refer the final drive/differential unit.

The differential, shown mounted on the flywheel carrier.

The differential gear cluster, being held in hand.

Hydraulics:

In relation to cylinders, some are differential, meaning that they extend and retract at different speeds and with different forces. A non-differential ram retracts and extends with the same force and speed.

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Formula used to calculate the torque transmitted by a clutch, where:

Calculation of tspur and friction couples

Note: When carrying out these calculations, measurements must be in basic SI units:

This is why the answer to your calculations should be in Nm. (Newton metres).

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A metal containing iron. Examples are pig iron, wrought iron, cast iron and steel.
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A metal that does not contain iron. Examples are zinc, copper, tin, lead and aluminium.
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Pig iron is produced in a blast furnace, and is used in the manufacture of cast iron as well as carbon steel and alloy steel.

Pig iron is weak and brittle, and this is why it is never used as a structural material.


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