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Glossary of terms you will come across during your Phase 2 training.


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> means greater than -example 2 > 1

< means less than - example 1 < 2

≤ means less than or equal to.

≥ means greater than or equal to.

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Lambda, a letter from the Greek alpahbet. In automotive engineering, it is used to represent the stoichiometric ratio of the amount of air required to burn a fuel. For example, for diesel, the value is approximately 14.5:1, meaning that it takes 14.5 parts of air to burn 1 part of diesel.

The stoichiometric ratio for petrol is approximately 14.7:1.

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Pi, Greek letter used to represent how many times the diameter of a given circle will fit into its circumference. This is constant at 3.142. Apprentice cp fitters use this figure for many calculations, for example: when calculating the capacity of an engine; when calculating centrifugal force and when calculating the peripheral speed of a cutting disk.

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1104D Perkins common rail engineThis is a Perkins designation, and refers to the 1100 series engine. The '4' refers to a four cylinder engine, and the 'D' refers to the common rail engine.

This engine has full electronic control of the fuel system - common rail with electronic injectors. 

As of April, 2012, we operate 3 of these engines.

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The 1106C Perkins diesel engineThis designation refers to the 1100 series Perkins engine. The '6' refers to the number of cylinders, and the 'C' refers to the fuel injection system, which is mechanical, based around a rotary fuel injection pump. This engine is the forerunner of the 1100D common-rail engine. Currently, the section is equipped with 6 1106C engines and 3 1104D engines.

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Typical 12 volt electrical test lampThis consists of a 12V lamp, with two different terminals. One terminal (the earth terminal) consists of a short cable and a crocodile clip. The other terminal is at the pointed end of the tool. It is used by fastening the crocodile clip to a good earth point, and then using the sharp end of the took to probe wires. If the wires are live, the lamp will glow.

During the induction phase of the course, you will be issued (at your own expense) with a 12V test lamp.

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Typical diodeOne of a series of diodes (the 1N4000 series). They are popular, 1 amp, general purpose, silicon rectifier diodes.

During the Phase 2 course, we use these diodes to make half-wave rectifiers, full-wave rectifiers, and to suppress voltage spiking on 30 amp relays in circuits such as the time-delay circuit built as part of the Electrical Module.

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Crowsfoot injector removal toolCrow's foot tool that allows you to tighten injector pipe unions with a 3/8" torque wrench.
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The 3 effects of electicity.

3 Effects of electricity:

  1. Chemical change  - For example, the electrolyte in a battery changes from sulphuric acid (H2SO4) when the battery is charged, to water, H2O, when the battery is discharged.
  2. Heat - For example, current passed through a bulb causes the filament to glow white hot. This is incandescent heat.
  3. Magnetism - for example, when we pass electrical current through the commutator and the field windings of a motor, like poles come into close proximity. These poles repel each other, giving us the motoring action.
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DIN numerical wiring code:

  • 15: Battery live supply controlled by the ignition switch (often referred to as 'live under key').
  • 30: Battery live or battery positive (+)
  • 31: Battery earth or Ground (-)

Other codes you will come across on Phase 2 training include:

  • 85: End of coil (for example, the end of the coil windings on an electromagnetic relay)
  • 86: Start of coil (for example, the start of the coil windings on an electromagnetic relay)
  • 87: To load (for example, on an electromagnetic relay, battery positive is supplied to terminal 30 on the relay. That leads to a set of contact points, and the far side of those contacts is terminal 87, which leads to whatever load the relay is serving.

Understanding European DIN Codes (PDF document download)

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