Glossary of terms you will come across during your Phase 2 training.
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## A

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The ampere hour capacity of a battery is the amount of current the battery can deliver for a given period of time.

It is usually based on a period of 10 hours.

So, a battery with a rated capacity of 60 ampere hours at the 10 hour rate should be able to supply a steady current of 6 amps for 10 hours.

This battery is rated at 110 Ahr. It should be able to supply a steady current of 11 amps for 10 hours.

 Keyword(s): amp hour capacityamp-hour capacityampere hoursampere-hoursah capacitya/h capacitya-h capacityampere/hoursampere-hour capacity
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Amplitude, or peak voltage, is the maximum signal voltage relative to zero.

The apmlitude or peak voltage of the waveform here is approximately 0.7V.

 Keyword(s): peak voltage
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### AND gate, OR gate, NOT gate (inverter)

In the phase 2 syllabus, we will study electronics and logic.

During the course of these studies, we will look at the following logic gates:

• AND gate
• OR gate
• NOT gate (inverter)

You can read more about the logic gates on the phase 2 syllabus here

 Keyword(s): inverternot gateor gate
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In the context of electronic engine management, anemometer describes a sensor that is used for measuring air quantity.
 Keyword(s): anemometers
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During phase 2, you will come across the need to soften copper washers, before using them as seals between injectors and cylinder heads. Copper tends to harden, even when not in use. If we use copper in this condition, it will not form a good seal.

To avoid this we anneal the washer. We heat it to a cherry red, then quench it in water. This has the effect of softening the metal, making it suitable for use as a sealing washer.

Strictly speaking, it is not necessary to quench in water. Allowing the washer to cool itself would suffice. We quench them to save time.

 Keyword(s): annealingannealed
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### Anode and Cathode:

The anode is the terminal of a device that electrons flow out of to complete a circuit. For example, the positive terminal of a thyristor is the anode.
The cathode is the terminal that electrons flow into to complete a circuit. For example, the negative or earth terminal of a thyristor is the cathode.

Be careful to avoid confusion here: We are saying that the anode is the terminal that electrons flow out of to complete a circuit, yet we think of the electricity as flowing in the positive and out the negative terminal.

The explanation is that we are thinking in terms of the conventional theory(+ to -), yet we are dealing with an electronic device, and we know that operates in accordance with the electron flow theory (- to +).

 Keyword(s): Cathode
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The anti-flashover insulation is there to prevent the HT electricity from running down the outside of the spark plug and reaching earth where the plug is screwed into the cylinder head or barrel. Because this path is in the atmosphere, it presents an easy path to ground for the HT electricity, so we use ceramic to insulate the centre electrode and we put a series of ribs into the ceramic to further reduce the conductivity of this pathway.
 Keyword(s): anti flashover insulationanti-flashoveranti flashover
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Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor. The wiring diagram shown here is from a Ford Fiesta, 2002.

This sensor makes use of two potentiometers.

 Keyword(s): APP sensors
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Apprenticeship is a method by which a person works for an employer in his or her chosen trade and learns the necessary skills, knowledge and attitudes to become a qualified craftsperson.

Apprenticeship in Ireland is now standards based, which means you will undergo specific tests and assessments to ensure you achieve certain pre-set standards of skill and competence at each of the seven phases, before moving on to the next phase.

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Arbitration means negotiation. For example:

In CAN bus systems, if two nodes try to access the bus at the same instant to send a message, unless we take precautions, there will be a conflict and possible data collision, with the resultant loss of data and network down-time.

In order to avoid this, the messages from each of the nodes have unique message IDs. The message with the lower ID is deemed to have the higher priority and gets sent first. Whilst this is happening, the other node goes into listening mode, and does not attempt to transmit its message. As soon as the higher priority message has been transmitted, the bus is free and the second mode can then automatically transmit its message. Conflict and data collision have been avoided, and the arbitration process only takes about 12 microseconds.

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